Genetics – what seperates endurance athletes from sprinters

genetics_what_seperates_endurance_athletes_sprinters According to Professor Kathryn North from the University of Sydney, a gene variation commonly found in endurance athletes most likely evolved as humans moved out of warm, food-rich environments to colder and harsher conditions, new research shows.

The variant form of the gene ACTN3, commonly found in endurance athletes, is also associated with more efficient muscle metabolism. Authors conclude that ACTN3, the original “sprinters” gene, has evolved over millions of years to equip humans to cope with changing and more hostile environments.

“There is a fascinating link between factors that influence survival in ancient humans and the factors that contribute to athletic abilities in modern man,” said Professor North.

Her discovery was that variations of the gene provided an important guide to whether an elite athlete has ability to be a power sprinter or an endurance performer.

In its most common variation, which accounts for about 80% of the Australian population, ACTN3 encodes for a protein called alpha-actinin-3. This is the protein which is found only in fast-twitch muscle fibres and is responsible for the explosive bursts of power necessary for successful sprinters or track cyclists. Among elite power athletes the alpha-actinin-3 protein is nearly always present.

Those with the variant form of the gene, about 20 per cent of the population, do not make the alpha-actinin-3 protein. Among elite endurance athletes – marathon runners and rowers – the variant form of the gene is more common.

Researchers developed a strain of mice that were completely deficient in alpha-actinin-3. They found the muscle metabolism of the mice without the actinin protein was more efficient: the mice were able to run, on average, 33 per cent further before reaching exhaustion than mice with the normal ACTN3 gene.

To answer the question as to why the variation occurred they looked at DNA samples from 96 individuals from around the world.

“Most Africans have alpha-actinin-3, it’s the normal ancestral state. But as you move into European and Asian populations there is a marked increase in the number of people without the protein. In some Asian populations that number reaches 40 per cent, or even higher in some isolated populations,” she said.

She believes the switch to more efficient metabolism is likely to have occurred due to natural selection during the last Ice Age, when humans began moving out of the food-rich areas of Africa into colder, harsher environments.

Source: University of Sydney

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